Posts Tagged ‘alkaline battery

1-5v-aa-duracell-procell-alkaline-battery

The 1.5V AA Duracell Procell Alkaline batteries we’ve got for testing are what Durcell provides for professional and business use – the Duracell Professional is the business-to-business division of Duracell. The batteries we’ve got for testing are under warranty until 03-2019 and Duracell mentions shelf life of about 7 years for these batteries. What Duracell mentions about these batteries is that they can operate in temperature extremes between -20°C and +54°C, and that the Procell batteries are ideal for applications such as torches, telemeters and measuring instruments, microphones and medical devices.

According to the specifications that Duracell provides for the 1.5V AA Procell Alkaline batteries for a typical discharge performance at 21 degrees Celsius a single cell should provide about 2900mAh at 0.05A discharge current, ~2700 mAh at 0.1A, ~2300 mAh at 0.25A and about 2000 mAh at 0.5A load. These numbers however are not for constant current discharge, but instead for a duty cycle use that includes a few hours a day and we are testing with constant current discharge, so we expected to get a bit lower numbers in our tests.

1-5v-aa-duracell-procell-alkaline-power-profile

The Power Profile test checks how the battery handles different current loads before it reaches the cutoff voltage, the test starts at 0A and gradually increases with steps of 0.05A each 20 seconds until it the cutoff voltage of the cell is reached. In the case of the 1.5V AA Duracell Procell Alkaline batteries we were able to reach a current load of 1.70A before the battery has reached the cutoff value of 1V, meaning that these batteries even though Alkaline are pretty capable of handling quite high current loads.

1-5v-aa-duracell-procell-alkaline-capacity

The Open Circuit Voltage (no load voltage) of the 1.5V AA Duracell Procell Alkaline batteries is 1.6V, though it quickly drops to 1.5V under load. We are testing all Alkaline batteries with a constant current load of 0.1A, 0.2A, 0.5A and 1A and measuring what capacity they can provide at these levels, and these Alkaline cells from Duracell are no exception. What was interesting here is that the Duracell Procell batteries are able to handle quite well higher current drain for a while and although there is an expected drop in the useable capacity you get even at 1A constant current load we got quite good performance out of them and this is something that is not very common for Alkaline batteries.

What we got out of the 1.5V AA Duracell Procell Alkaline batteries in our tests:

– 2557 mAh at 0.1A load
– 2120 mAh at 0.2A load
– 1287 mAh at 0.5A load
– 619 mAh at 1.0A load

– 3.182 Wh at 0.1A load
– 2.561 Wh at 0.2A load
– 1.482 Wh at 0.5A load
– 0.687 Wh at 1.0A load

Only the battery that we’ve tested with constant current discharge using 1A load got slightly hotter than the ambient temperature of 25 degrees Celsius that we are testing at. At the end of the discharge cycle the temperature of that battery has reached 31 degrees C. We were quite pleasantly surprised by the good capacity and the ability of these Alkaline batteries to handle higher loads with ease and this makes them interesting not only for low drain applications that typically Alkaline batteries are used for, but also for applications where higher current load may be required as they are apparently able to handle well in such situations.

To download a datasheet with the manufacturer’s battery specifications…

1-5v-aa-energizer-industrial-alkaline-batteries

The 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries we’ve got here for testing are marked with a number LR6DP10 and a code 636105 on their box, and are marked as not for retail trade (obviously intended for industrial use as the name suggests). According to the specifications of the battery from Energizer they have an operating temperature of -18°C to 55°C (0°F to 130°F) and a Shelf Life of 10 years at 21°C, the warranty marked on the batteries being tested is 03-2019. Professional and industrial grade Alkaline batteries are usually designed to handle better extreme conditions such as low or high temperatures of the environment, so we are probably going to do some additional testing of the performance these batteries have under more extreme conditions aside from the standard room temperature of 25°C that we are usually testing at. Have in mind that higher temperature may lead to lower internal resistance, however higher operating temperatures for prolonged time may also damage the battery.

The Milliamp-Hours Capacity of the 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries that Energizer provides for continuous discharge to 0.8 volts at 21°C is as follows: ~2800mAh at 25 mA load, ~2500mAh at 100 mA load, ~1900mAh at 250 mA load, ~1400mAh at 500 mA load. The 0.8V is the voltage for a totally discharged Alkaline battery cell, however we are testing with a cutoff voltage of 1V as at a voltage of 0.8V a lot of devices may not be able to function properly. Also we are testing at 25°C room temperature and the different temperature means different internal resistance and as a result it is expected to get a different capacity results.


1-5v-aa-energizer-industrial-alkaline-power-profile

The Power Profile test checks how the battery handles different current loads before it reaches the cutoff voltage, the test starts at 0A and gradually increases with steps of 0.05A each 20 seconds until it the cutoff voltage of the cell is reached. In the case of the 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries when a current load of 1.5A (which is quite high for an Alkaline battery) is applied the battery’s voltage quickly drops to the cutoff value, meaning that the battery is unable to handle such high current loads. Alkaline batteries are usually used for low current draw applications over longer periods of time due to their low self discharge, if you need an alternative of an Alkaline battery for high current draw operation over a shorter period of time you should consider choosing NiMH for example.


1-5v-aa-energizer-industrial-alkaline-capacity

The Open Circuit Voltage (no load voltage) of the 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries is 1.61V, though under load it quickly drops to 1.5V or lower depending on the current load of the battery. We are testing all Alkaline batteries with a constant current load of 0.1A, 0.2A, 0.5A and 1A and measuring what capacity they can provide at these levels. With a duty cycle (on/off for the load) or with varying current load levels the same battery can provide different results, also not the fact that even when a battery reaches the cutoff voltage at a specific current load (especially for higher loads) this does not mean that it is completely depleted. This only means that your battery powered device may stop functioning, but after a little rest for the battery or with a reduced load it may work again for a bit more.

What we got out of the 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries in our tests:

– 2236 mAh at 0.1A load
– 1869 mAh at 0.2A load
– 1129 mAh at 0.5A load
– 500 mAh at 1.0A load

– 2.887 Wh at 0.1A load
– 2.251 Wh at 0.2A load
– 1.285 Wh at 0.5A load
– 0.554 Wh at 1.0A load

The overall results we got are very satisfactory for an Industrial type Alkaline battery, and we’ve already mentioned why our results may be different than what Energizer provides as information about the capabilities of these batteries. Our tests show that the 1.5V AA Energizer Industrial Alkaline batteries are performing very well and they should be able to perform even better in situations with lower current requirements such as 0.025A for example.

To download a datasheet with the manufacturer’s battery specifications…

alkaline-batteries-for-recyling

Alkaline batteries are a type of primary batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide, they are called alkaline because they use alkaline electrolyte. Alkaline batteries are usually a single use type, though recent developments allowed rechargeable alkaline batteries as well, though they are not suitable for deep cycle use as they offer very few recharge cycles in such usage scenarios. The capacity of an alkaline battery is dependent on the load of the battery, the useable capacity for low loads can be significantly higher than in high load applications. The nominal voltage of a new alkaline cell is 1.5V, though the open circuit voltage can be higher, the fully discharged cell has a remaining voltage of about 0.8V. Alkaline batteries are usually used in low power applications where they can be used for longer periods of time as they have low self discharge over time. Carbon-Zinc batteries can sometimes be confused for alkaline batteries, though they are not, although they are also offering the same operating voltage and are single use batteries and are not rechargeable. Carbon-Zinc batteries can be used in most cases where you would use an alkaline battery with no problems at all as they are compatible, though they may not be the best choice in all cases.

A Nickel–metal hydride battery (NiMH) and Nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd) are two similar types of type of rechargeable batteries. The main difference between the NiMH and NiCd is the chemistry they use, with the NiMH batteries capable of having higher capacity than the NiCd. The NiMH and NiCd batteries have a nominal voltage of 1.2-1.4V, though the open circuit voltage can be higher, when discharged they are down at about 1.0V. One of the significant disadvantages ot this type of batteries is the high rate of self-discharge that NiMH and NiCd (lower than on NiMH) batteries have and they do not come charged. The problem with faster self discharge and the fact that you need to charge them before use has been addressed with the more recent low self-discharge (LSD) NiMH batteries that are becoming more and more popular in the last few years. These LSD NiMH batteries come pre-charged and loose their capacity when not use at a much slower pace than traditional NiMH batteries. There is a lot of controversy going on around NiMH and NiCd batteries about the so called “memory effect” they are supposedly suffering from, but this has become more of an urban legend and a marketing tactics than something that you should be worried about as a possible problem in 99% of the time.

A Lithium-ion battery as well as other variations such as Lithium-polymer battery or Lithium-iron phosphate batteries are rechargeable (secondary cell) batteries in which lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode during discharge and back when charging. The rechargeable Li-ion, Li-Poly and LiFePO batteries are different from the standard Lithium batteries that are not rechargeable. The rechargeable Lithium-based batteries provide lightweight, high energy density power sources for a variety of devices and are becoming more and more popular and widely used in portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, game consoles, tablets and laptops. The lithium-ion batteries usually have a 3.6V or 3.7V nominal voltage, the LiFePO4 (LiFe in short) have a nominal voltage of about 3.2V or 3.3V and the lithium-polymer batteries have a nominal voltage of 3.7V per cell. With Li-ion and LiPo batteries the recommended per cell safety zone is usually between 3V (fully discharged) and 4.2V (fully charged), though you normally can discharge the batteries up to about 2.8V without problems, going below may damage them irreversibly, so these batteries often have built-in safeties not to be over-discharged, also overcharging can be dangerous. LiFe batteries are a bit different as they have a bit lower operating voltage of about 3.2V – 3.3V, the minimum discharge voltage is 2.8V and the maximum charged voltage is 3.6V. The LiFePo4 batteries have more constant discharge voltage are considered to offer better safety than other Lithium-based batteries. Other advantages of the Lithium-based rechargeable batteries include the ability for much faster charge and higher discharge rates than other chemistries mentioned and usually higher number of recharge cycles, meaning longer life when not fully discharged.

These are some of the most common types of batteries that we are going to be testing and comparing in terms of performance here on the pages of RightBattery.com, though there are many other types of batteries using different chemistry and with varying performance and features, but these are not very widely used. And since they are either too specific or nor widely spread and used, you would probably not going to need to use any of them, aside maybe from Lead-Acid (Pb) batteries which are the the oldest type of rechargeable battery we are probably not going to test most of them, again aside from maybe Pb batteries.


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